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On a summer time afternoon in Southern California 9 years in the past, a commuter prepare blew by means of a cease sign and ran head-on into an oncoming freight prepare, killing 25 folks.

After investigators decided that the crash might have been prevented by automatic-braking know-how, Congress ordered all passenger railroads to put in new methods by 2016. Since then, Congress has prolonged that deadline and trains have stored dashing into preventable disasters, together with the Amtrak derailment that killed three folks in Western Washington on Monday.

In Amtrak’s case, it is a recurring nightmare. The crash this week was eerily harking back to one simply two years in the past in Philadelphia, the place an Amtrak prepare barreled right into a sweeping curve at 106 miles an hour earlier than leaping the tracks and rolling over. Eight folks died.

That crash, too, might have been prevented by the know-how, often called constructive prepare management. However 5 months after it occurred, Congress gave railroads a minimum of three extra years to put in it.

“Right here we’re, virtually 10 years later, and that deadline got here and went,” stated Kitty Higgins, a former member of the Nationwide Transportation Security Board. “The railroads have been slow-walking it and it nonetheless will not be applied. It’s completely outrageous.”

Railroads have cited the price and complexity of including the know-how, which depends on satellites and radio indicators to stop trains from working uncontrolled if an engineer has misplaced focus or fallen asleep whereas driving. Business estimates of the whole price of set up exceed $10 billion.

However over time for the reason that mandate, railroads have continued to spend cash on different priorities, together with new trains and stations and passenger facilities. For the reason that Philadelphia accident, Amtrak has put the know-how into use on the Northeast Hall, from Boston to Washington. However it’s not put in on most different passenger traces, together with Lengthy Island Rail Street and New Jersey Transit.

“It’s sophisticated, however the railroads have been at this for a really very long time,” stated Ms. Higgins, who was the protection board’s lead consultant on the scene of the California crash. “We put a person on the moon 50 years in the past quicker than we’ve been in a position to implement constructive prepare management. I imply, come on.”

The drawn-out marketing campaign to undertake the know-how displays the conflicting forces at work on the nation’s rails. Freight rail corporations are the largest customers of tracks in most elements of the nation, and so they initially didn’t see sufficient advantages to investing in constructive prepare management. However passenger railroads typically share these tracks, as Amtrak’s Cascades service does within the Pacific Northwest.

Certainly, the brand new part of monitor in DuPont, Wash., close to the place the Cascades prepare derailed on Monday, was an outdated freight line that had been revamped for passenger trains and named the Level Defiance Bypass. Investigators from the N.T.S.B. haven’t decided what induced the crash or if constructive prepare management would have prevented it. However they stated the prepare was going 80 miles an hour right into a curve with a restrict of 30 miles an hour, and that, though gear for the automatic-braking system was in place, it was not but in use.

On Wednesday, the Pierce County medical expert’s workplace recognized the third sufferer of the crash as Benjamin Gran, 40, of Auburn, Wash.

Richard Anderson, co-chief govt of Amtrak, stated on Wednesday that the crash was “a wake-up name” and that Amtrak was decided to function “the most secure railroad on the planet.”

Demonstrating constructive prepare management know-how at a Metrolink coaching facility in Los Angeles Union Station in 2014.Credit scoreDamian Dovarganes/Related Press

Putting in the protection know-how is just one problem. The system requires operators of trains to have the ability to talk immediately and frequently with rail firm again workplaces. These have to be linked with the monitor’s house owners in order that real-time details about monitor circumstances and switches — or curves requiring a slowdown — may be fed into the system that mechanically slows or cease a prepare as circumstances change. And as in lots of different elements of the nation’s prepare system, completely different entities personal completely different items. If all three of the elements aren’t harnessed collectively and dealing, then none of it really works.

The monitor utilized by Amtrak between Tacoma and DuPont, for instance, is owned by Sound Transit, a regional transportation company that serves the Seattle metro space. Rachelle Cunningham, a spokeswoman for Sound Transit, stated the company was on schedule to have constructive prepare management put in by the center of subsequent 12 months. The BNSF Railroad owns a lot of the remainder of the monitor within the hall, Ms. Cunningham stated, till the Oregon border, at which level, she stated, it turns into Union Pacific’s. When requested why the know-how was not added in time for the maiden voyage, Sound Transit referred inquiries to Amtrak and Washington State’s Division of Transportation. Amtrak earlier this week referred questions on the know-how to Sound Transit.

Cunningham stated Sound Transit was solely liable for the monitor elements on part of the system, whereas Amtrak and different corporations had been liable for the gear on trains, the radio towers and management heart.

As they lobbied towards the preliminary deadline in 2015, the railroad business complained that the date had been set arbitrarily, with out learning how lengthy it will take to develop the methods, safe permits and put the tasks to public bids. One of the costly elements of the know-how is the necessity to purchase wi-fi spectrum over which details about prepare motion may be transmitted.

Warning that rail traces might need to droop service and curtail shipments, railroads requested Congress to delay the 2015 deadline. Lawmakers had been able to push it again to 2020, till the Amtrak crash in Philadelphia within the spring of that 12 months.

Legislators settled for a brand new deadline of Dec. 31, 2018, with a further, two-year extension potential on a case-by-case foundation. President Barack Obama signed the extension into legislation in October 2015.

The 2 Republican lawmakers behind the deadline extension, Consultant Invoice Shuster of Pennsylvania and Senator Roy Blunt of Missouri, had been the highest two recipients of political marketing campaign contributions from the railroad business in 2016, based on the Middle for Responsive Politics.

“We knew the mandate could be difficult, however we hoped railroads would be capable to meet that deadline, seven years into the long run,” stated Mr. Shuster in 2015 throughout a listening to to delay the deadline. “Sadly, we all know right now that won’t be the case.”

Senator Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut, a Democrat who sits on the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, known as the delays in adopting the know-how “scandalously irresponsible.”

“They’ve been straight the results of railroads utilizing their political sway to realize repeated postponements,” he stated.

The Senate committee plans to carry an oversight listening to on the standing of constructive prepare management this winter, within the wake of the Washington State crash. When the crash occurred in Philadelphia, Amtrak had a model of constructive prepare management working alongside elements of its community, however not on the part of the accident.

Joseph Boardman, a former chief govt of Amtrak, stated the corporate might have had the system in place all through the hall greater than 15 years in the past if Congress had not stored chopping the railroad’s funding. “It’s the identical drawback that you just see all over the place with the infrastructure funding — not sufficient being accessible to do the job,” he stated.

For Amtrak, the most recent crash has bolstered the view that the railroad could also be skimping on security. Final 12 months, one in every of its trains slammed into a bit of upkeep gear in Chester, Pa., killing two employees on the tracks. In a report on that accident, Robert L. Sumwalt, the chairman of the protection board, stated “Amtrak’s security tradition is failing, and is primed to fail once more, till and except Amtrak adjustments the best way it practices security administration.”

Mr. Boardman, who has at instances been crucial of his successors at Amtrak, disagreed.

“Do I believe Amtrak’s unsafe?” he stated. “No. It’s not unsafe, under no circumstances.”

A model of this text seems in print on , on Web page A21 of the New York version with the headline: Many Trains Nonetheless Lack Essential Braking System. Order Reprints | As we speak’s Paper | Subscribe

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