Because the longtime authorities rationalization goes: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963, by a lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. Mr. Oswald fired three bullets from a close-by constructing, placing Mr. Kennedy and Texas Gov. John Connally.
However a lot of the general public has by no means totally purchased that rationalization. A trove of information anticipated to be launched on Thursday, which the federal authorities had lengthy fought to maintain from public view, had been more likely to tackle among the conspiracy theories which have lingered for many years.
As you dive into the paperwork or learn information protection, refresh your reminiscence right here on among the folks, theories and different points of the assassination.
The Zapruder movie
A 26-second house video by Abraham Zapruder is the clearest recording accessible of the second Mr. Kennedy was shot. It has been pored over each which manner, in hopes of discovering the slightest of clues.
The movie is now too brittle to run by means of a projector, however in 1999, the federal government paid Mr. Zapruder’s heirs $16 million for it.
The Warren Fee and the ‘magic bullet’
On Sept. 27, 1964, authorities investigators launched an 888-page report on the assassination, forming the official rationalization of the occasions. It concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in killing the president, and that Jack Ruby acted alone in killing Mr. Oswald two days later. It positioned no blame on recommended conspirators like communists, international governments, the American intelligence group or right-wing conservatives.
Amongst its extra controversial contentions was single bullet — derisively known as a “magic bullet” — struck each Mr. Kennedy and Mr. Connally, who survived the taking pictures. The speculation was crafted partly by Arlen Specter, the longtime Pennsylvania senator who, on the time, was early in his profession.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Mr. Oswald, a former Marine, fired three pictures from the close by Texas College Guide Depository, the Warren Fee concluded. He denied that he had shot the president, calling himself a “patsy.”
He was arrested hours later after taking pictures a police officer and ducking into the close by Texas Theatre, the Warren Fee concluded.
Two days after the presidential assassination, Mr. Oswald was being transferred from a metropolis jail to a county jail when Mr. Ruby stepped out from a crowd and shot him at shut vary, as thousands and thousands of individuals watched on stay tv.
He died in jail in 1967.
Second shooter, grassy knoll and the ‘magic bullet’
Individuals have lengthy expressed skepticism over the official rationalization that Mr. Oswald and Mr. Ruby had every acted alone. A current ballot by FiveThirtyEight and SurveyMonkey discovered that 33 % of Individuals believed one particular person was solely liable for the assassination, whereas 61 % imagine others had been concerned.
A New York Occasions/CBS Information Ballot in 1988 discovered 13 % of Individuals believed Mr. Oswald acted alone.
Skeptics typically say it might have been not possible for Mr. Oswald to fireside quick sufficient to hit each Mr. Kennedy and Mr. Connally, or for a similar “magic bullet” to strike each males. (Mr. Connally mentioned he thinks he was struck by a separate bullet.)
The proposed rationalization can be a second shooter on what has turn into generally known as the “grassy knoll,” an space forward and to the best of the motorcade.
It was a wonderful day in Dallas, not a cloud within the sky. So why was one man holding up an umbrella?
The person, who will be seen within the Zapruder movie and in different photos, turned the thing of fascination. Might he have been signaling messages to gunmen? Was his umbrella rigged with some sort of weapon?
Josiah Thompson, a researcher, gave the mysterious determine a reputation that will stick: Umbrella Man.
“The one particular person beneath any umbrella in all of Dallas, standing proper on the location the place all of the pictures come into the limousine,” he mentioned in a 2011 Op-Doc by Errol Morris. “Can anybody provide you with a non-sinister rationalization for this? Hmm? Hmm?”
Because it seems, Umbrella Man might. Louie Steven Witt got here ahead and testified in Washington in 1978, explaining that his umbrella was meant to protest the Nazi-appeasement insurance policies of Joseph P. Kennedy, the president’s father. The elder Kennedy supported the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, who typically carried an umbrella as an adjunct, and he hoped the president would get the message.
Mr. Oswald visited Mexico Metropolis for six days shortly earlier than the assassination. He mentioned he was there to acquire visas from the Cuban and Soviet Union embassies.
However some folks suspect Mr. Oswald labored with different folks there to plan the assault, and his actual actions throughout his time there stays mysterious. Specialists assume the paperwork launched on Thursday might concentrate on conferences he had there.